The stepping up and stepping down means raising the voltage and lowering the voltage is required for different stages of generation, transmission and distribution. The raising and lowering of voltage is done with the static device called transformer.
Transformer is a static device which is use for stepping up and down voltages without changing frequency. Transformer transfer power from one circuit to another without changing its frequency. Transformer increase voltage by decreasing current and decrease voltage by increasing current. Transformer transformers electrical power by changing voltage and current and keeping frequency constant.
There may be two side in transformer one is called primary winding and second is called secondary winding. Primary winding receive the electrical power and secondary winding deliver it. The electrical power transfer between the two winding is almost constant but there are some loss in this process. The windings are wound on the laminated core of magnetic material.
The transformer uses Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction to raise or lower the voltage. Transformer only works with alternating current (AC), Transformer do not work with direct current (DC), if we applied direct current (DC) to the input of transformer it may get heated and burn the winding.
There are basically three types of transformer step up transformer, step down transformer and isolation transformer. So there are various application of transformer like step up transformer is use for transmission purpose, step down transformer is use for distribution purpose and isolation transformer is use for providing electrical isolation between two electrical circuit. Transformers are also use for impedance matching.
The transformer are classified as power transformer, electronics transformer, isolation transformer, magnetic saturation transformer, power start transformer, autotransformer, multiphase transformer, magnetic flux linkage transformer, resonant transformer etc.