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Explain the proportional control action in detail.

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In proportional control action, controller output is directly proportional to error when the error is within proportional band (PB). The slope of the characteristics between controller output to error is called as proportional gain Kp. The advantage of proportional action is one-to-one relationship between error and controller output. Mathematical equation of proportional control action is

CO (t) = Kp e(t) + CO (0)

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