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Define Isotopes. Give two applications of carbon isotopes. 

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Isotopes: The different atoms of the same elements having same atomic number but different atomic mass number are called isotopes. 

Applications of Carbon isotopes :  

1. C 12 being most abundant in nature as backbone of life on earth. C 12 participates in all metabolic processes including respiration and photosynthesis. 

2. Fossil fuels are created from dead carbon based organic matter. 

3. All our energy needs are satisfied by carbon base crude oil and natural gas deposits. 

4. C 13 has application in NMR, as it has nuclear spin, which respond to radio frequency signal. 

5. In Earth science (C13) it is used to determine identity of water sources. 

6. C 14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon, used in radiocarbon dating technique. It is used to determine the age of carbon containing materials which are up to 60,000 years old.

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