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State Arrhenius theory of ionization.

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1) The molecule of an electrolyte when dissolved in water split up into two kinds of charged particles. One carrying a positive (+ve) charge called cation and the other carrying negative (-ve) charge called anion. 2) Cations are generally metallic radicals obtained by loss of electrons from the metallic atoms while anions are non-metallic atoms or radicals obtained by gain of electrons by non-metallic atoms or non-metals. 3) In solution, the total number of cations (+ve charge) is equal to the total number of anions (-ve charge) and hence the solution as a whole is electrically neutral. 4) The number of positive charges & negative charges on the cations or anions corresponds to the valency of the elements. 5) The ions present in solution are constantly reuniting to form un-dissociated molecules. Hence the process of electrolytic dissociation is reversible.

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