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Explain in detail the construction & working of He-Ne laser. 

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Construction : 1. It consists of a quartz tube of about 80 cm length and 1.5 cm diameter. 2. The tube is filled with mixture of helium (He) and neon (Ne) gas. 3. The mixture consists of 90% helium atoms and 10% neon atoms. 4. At one end perfect reflector is fixed and at the other end partial reflector is fixed. 


Working : (1)When electric discharge is produced in the tube, He and Ne gas atoms are excited. Some excited levels of helium are close to some excited levels of neon. Therefore these excited helium atoms collide with excited atoms of neon and transfer the energy to neon atoms. (2) The actual lasing action is done by neon atoms. The neon atoms with extra energy from helium atom are forced to jump in ground state by emitting a photon. This produces the LASER light. The newly emitted photon triggers the next neon atom and increases the radiations. (3) Thus coherent, monochromatic, unidirectional LASER is produced by He-Ne gas LASER The energy level diagram of He-Ne LASER is shown below.


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