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Define : i) MMF ii) Reluctance iii) Fringing iv) Leakage flux

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i) MMF:  It is the force that drives magnetic flux through magnetic circuit. It is measured in amp-turns. 

ii) Reluctance (s) :-  Reluctance is the property of the substance which opposes the creation of flux in it. 

iii) Fringing: When the magnetic flux passing or crossing an air gap then it tends to bulge outwards the iron ring, this effect is called as “Fringing”. 

iv) Leakage flux: Some flux while passing through the magnetic circuit, leaks through the air surrounding the core. This flux is called as leakage flux.

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