Define load and line regulation.

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1. Load regulation : The load regulation indicates how much the load voltage changes when the load current changes. The load regulation is defined as:

% Load regulation = (VNL-VFL) / VFL *100

Where VNL = load voltage with no load current

VFL = load voltage with full load current.

The smaller the load regulation, the better the power supply. A well-regulated power supply can have a load regulation of less than 1%

2. Line regulation : Any change in the line voltage out of the nominal value (i.e., 230V ac) will affect the performance of the power supply.

Line regulation is a measure of how well a power supply is able to maintain the dc output voltage for a change in the ac input line voltage.

The smaller the line regulation, the better the power supply. A well-regulated power supply can have a line regulation of less than 0.1%.

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