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Explain working of n-p-n transistor in unbiased condition.

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Construction of NPN transistor: For an unbiased transistor no external power supplies are connected to it. Base is sandwiched between collector & emitter terminal. It is thin & lightly doped layer. Emitter & collector layers are wider than base & heavily doped than base. A transistor is formed of two P-N junctions. For unbiased P-N junctions, the depletion regions are formed. The fig(a) shows the depletion regions formed at the B-E and C-B junctions of n-p-n transistor. Due to this depletion region any kind of current will not flow due to majority carrier but very small amount of current will flow because of thermally generated minority carrier. To break this depletion layer there is a need of providing external power supply to transistor & this process is known as Biasing.

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