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State any two advantages and two disadvantages of nuclear power plant.

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Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power plant : 

Advantages : 1) Fuel requirement for generating a given amount of electrical energy is very small as compared to others. 2) It is efficient when operated at rated capacity. 3) They reduce the demand for coal, gas and oil. 4) Fuel requirement is only in kilograms. Hence, there is no problem for transportation, storage etc. 5) It requires less area as compared to any other plant of the same size. 6) The running costs are less. 7) For large capacity, nuclear power plants are more economical. 8) The cost per unit decreases when power generated is in large amount. 9) Output control is extremely flexible as these are not affected by adverse weather conditions. 10) There are large deposits of nuclear fuels available all over the world, therefore such plants can ensure continued supply of electrical energy for thousands of year. 11) It ensures reliability of operations. 12) Operation is clean, no ash fumes etc. 

Disadvantages: 1) High initial capital cost as compared to other types of power plant. 2) These plants are not suitable for varying loads, as reactors cannot be easily control. 3) It is difficult to seal the plant from radioactive radiation. 4) The disposal of fission products is a big problem. 5) The maintenance cost is high. 6) The fuel required is not readily available. 7) The erection and commissioning work is complicated and requires expertise. 8) The danger of radiation is always there & high safety standards are to be practiced and maintained. 9) There is always a danger of accident or terrorism when transporting nuclear fuel or nuclear waste. 10) Enrichment technology is essential for fuel processing.

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Disadvantages of nuclear power station: 1. Capital cost of plant is higher as compare to thermal power plant 2. Maintenance cost of plant is high. 3. The erection & commission of this plant require more technical knowledge staff so cost generation is increases. 4. Specially trained staff is require to handle the plant which rises the running cost due to high salaries. 5. The fission bi-products are generally redioactive & may cause dengereous amount of radioactive pollution. 6. Disposal of nuclear waste require high cost because they have eithere to be disposed off in a deep trench or sea away from sea-shore to avoid air pollution. 7. The fuel used is expensive. 8. Nuclear power plant not suitable for supplying power to variable load. 9. In case of accident there may be explosion (like-atom Bomb) causing extensive damage to the mankind,animals and environment. 10. Generation Cost per unit is more.

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