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Draw the constructional detail of C type bourdon tube and explain its working. 

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Constructional Diagram: 


image

Working: 

• C type bourdon tube is made up of an elliptically flattened tube bent in such a way as to produce the C shape as shown in the fig. The free end of this tube is closed or sealed and the other end (fixed end) is opened for the pressure to enter. 

• The free end is connected to the pointer with the help of geared sector and pinion. Calibrated scale and pointer is provided to indicate the pressure. 

• The pressure which is to be measured is applied to the bourdon tube through open end. When this pressure enters the tube, the tube tends to straighten out proportional to applied pressure. 

• This causes the movement of the free end and the displacement of this end is given to the pointer through mechanical linkage i.e. geared sector and pinion. 

• The pointer moves on the calibrated scale in terms of pressure. The relationship between the displacement of the free end and the applied pressure is nonlinear.

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Helical Tube

image

Construction and working : Figure shows helical type bourdon tube. It is similar to spiral element, except it is wound in the form of helix. The displacement of the tip of a helical element is larger than the spiral element. Central shaft is installed (not shown in fig.) within a helical element and the pointer is driven by this shaft using connecting links. This mechanism transmits only the circular motion of the tip to the pointer which is directly proportional to the applied pressure.


OR


Twisted Tube

image Construction and working : Twisted bourdon tube element is as shown in figure. One end of the tube is fixed and other end is free for application of the twist. As we apply the pressure at the free end, it gives rotation or creates the twist at that end. As we remove the pressure the free end try to retain its original position.


OR


Spiral Tube

image 

Construction and working : Spiral type bourdon tube is as shown in figure. Spiral tubes are made by winding several turns of the tube with its flattened cross section in the form of spiral. When the pressure to be measured is applied to the spiral, it tends to uncoil producing relatively long movement of the tip whose displacement can be indication of applied pressure. Accuracy of this element is higher than ‘C’ type element.

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Explanation : The C-shaped Bourdon tube has a hollow, elliptical cross section. It is closed at one end and is connected to the fluid pressure at the other end. When pressure is applied, its cross section becomes more circular, causing the tube to straighten out, like a garden hose when the water is first turned on, until the force of the fluid pressure is balanced by the elastic resistance of the tube material. Since the open end of the tubes anchored in a fixed position, changes in pressure move the closed end. A pointer is attached to the closed end of the tube through a linkage arm and gear and pinion assembly, which rotates the pointer around a graduated scale. Bourdon-tube pressure gauges are often classified as simplex or duplex, depending upon whether they measure one pressure or two pressures. A simplex gauge has only one Bourdon tube and measures only one pressure. The pressure gauge shown in above diagram is a simple gauge. A red hand is available on some gauges. This hand is manually positioned at the maximum operating pressure of the system or portion of the system in which the gauge is installed. 

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