State types of filters. Define each of them.
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a. Low pass b. High pass c. Band pass d. All pass e. Active and passive f. Linear and nonlinear 

a. Low pass filter: A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low frequency signals and attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.

b. High-pass filter: It passes high-frequency signals but attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency

c. Band pass filter: It is a combination of a low-pass and a high-pass filters. It passes frequencies within a range and rejects frequencies outside that range.

d. All pass filter: An all-pass filter passes all frequencies equally in gain, but changes the phase relationship between various frequencies. It does this by varying its phase shift as a function of frequency.

e. Active and passive filters: Passive implementations of linear filters are based on combinations of resistors (R), inductors (L) and capacitors (C). These types are collectively known as passive filters, because they do not depend upon an external power supply and/or they do not contain active components such as transistors. Active filter design contains active components such as transistors and op amp.

f. Linear filters process time-varying input signals to produce output signals, giving linear response. Non linear filters process time-varying input signals to produce output signals, giving non linear response
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