Welcome to electrical and electronics engineering Q&A site...

Welcome to electrical and electronics engineering discussion website, Please login or register to continue.

Join our WhatsApp group

Subscribe To Our YouTube Channel

28 views
in Energy Conservation And Audit by
State and explain any four commercial losses in transmission and distribution system.

Amazon Shopping

Please log in or register to answer this question.

2 Answers

0 votes
by

Commercial losses in Transmission & Distribution systems: i) Power Theft ii) Unmetered supply iii) Meter inaccuracies. iv) Metering discrepancies. v) Small unmetered loads. vi) Billing issues vii)Lower collection efficiency.


i) Theft of electricity: Theft of electricity has been carried out by the ways of meter tempering and direct hooking. In meter tampering various methods have been carried out such as placing the powerful magnet on the meter, bypassing of meters, disturbing the disc rotation by inserting some material externally, stopping the meter by remote control, change in meter terminals etc. In direct hooking tapping of conductor of LT feeder or tampered service to make unauthorized and unmetered supply available for them. Power tapped by direct hooking can’t be accounted as it is an unmetered consumption.


ii) Unmetered supply: Unmetered supply used by agriculture pumps is one of the major causes of commercial loss for most of the states. Agriculture tariff is such that it charges consumption per unit of HP of the motor. State government gives subsidy on agricultural consumption hence some utilities deliberately overestimates this unmetered consumption.


iii) Meter inaccuracies: Losses due to meter inaccuracies are nothing but a difference between actual energy supplied to consumer through the meters and amount registered by meters. 


iv) Metering Discrepancies: Meter to be used for the measurement of electrical energy should be properly calibrated before installation. Defective meters give rise to errors in energy reading, these defects may be due to multiple reasons such as burning of meters, heavy load lead to burning of terminal box. Recording may also be reduced due to wrong CT ratios. 


v) Small unmetered loads: In some sections, energy consumption or usage is estimated in place of measuring it with an energy meter, this gives rise to unmetered losses. This happens in street lightning. 


vi)Billing issues: This is regarding consumer complaints regarding bill not received, late receipt of bill, received wrong bill, different meter reading, wrong applied tariff, wrong calculations. 


vii) Lower collection efficiency: Most of the times utility fail to collect the actual amount billed by them. So it is well obvious that higher commercial losses are inherent to lower collection efficiency. 

–1 vote
by
Skin effects

Carvana effect 

Core loss 

Over current 
by
These are not commercial losses.

Amazon Shopping

Welcome to Q&A site for electrical and electronics engineering discussion for diploma, B.E./B.Tech, M.E./M.Tech, & PhD study.
If you have a new question please ask in English.
If you want to help this community answer these questions.

Categories

Most popular tags

power motor dc circuit transformer voltage current used system phase factor resistance load synchronous energy ac induction generator electric series frequency capacitor use speed between electrical meter line type mosfet control transmission difference magnetic plant high single instrument bjt source advantages function diode machine unit winding torque amplifier define supply thyristor motors arduino field shunt maximum relay armature problem electricity time parallel on transformers types coil diagram state flow value material three starting and direction theorem method emf operating digital microprocessor test instruments efficiency ratio loss measure operation connected low applications wave effect single-phase working losses different network wattmeter temperature measuring constant signal controlled breaker device full compare drive wire resistivity logic materials machines inductance switch flux disadvantages converter transistor gain protection scr angle force core measurement number free principle rc generators law negative bridge friction open pole conductor conservation steam iron loop resistors hysteresis short computer using lines secondary station battery rectifier inverter linear relays nuclear regulation circuits design analog work rotor electronics gate forces diesel damping rlc connection factors capacitors minimum insulation basic moving running reactance systems air fault range direct main stability quality starter igbt eddy ideal ammeter rl 3-phase plants arc induced thermal error fuzzy biasing dielectric pressure balanced superposition errors rotation characteristics feedback measured electronic start alternator off back curve over solar three-phase tariff locomotive peak bias zener capacitance commutator surge rating universal potentiometer permanent mechanical copper self transducer capacity electrons memory adc excitation inductive transfer explain fuse pure harmonics application internal pmmc average reaction welding resonance traction breakers designed electromagnetic si generation brushes density switching shaded rate impedance distribution methods star oscillator reluctance semiconductor inductor simplification algebra 8085 boolean weston dynamometer insulating strength installation permeability definition fuel heating earth units neutral rms rated engineering conductors coefficient controller usually reverse excited analysis change body components
...