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With a neat diagram, explain back pressure steam turbine co-generation system.

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Back pressure steam turbine co-generation system: In this type steam enters the turbine chamber at High Pressure and expands to Low or Medium Pressure. Enthalpy difference is used for generating power / work. Depending on the pressure (or temperature) levels at which process steam is required, backpressure steam turbines can have different configurations as shown in Figure. In extraction and double extraction backpressure turbines, some amount of steam is extracted from the turbine after being expanded to a certain pressure level. The extracted steam meets the heat demands at pressure levels higher than the exhaust pressure of the steam turbine. The efficiency of a backpressure steam turbine cogeneration system is the highest. In cases where 100 per cent backpressure exhaust steam is used, the only inefficiencies are gear drive and electric generator losses, and the inefficiency of steam generation. Therefore, with an efficient boiler, the overall thermal efficiency of the system could reach as much as 90 percent.

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