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State commercial losses in transmission and distribution systems. Also state the remedies for the same.

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Different commercial losses in transmission & distribution system: 1) Losses due to unauthorized extension of loads. 2) Losses due to errors in meter reading & recording. 3) Losses due to bypassing the meter. 4) Losses due to improper testing & calibration of meters. 5) Losses due to stopping the meters by remote control. 6) Losses due to changing the sequence of thermal wiring. 7) Losses due to changing the C.T. ratio. 8) Losses due to intentional burning of meters.


Remedies: The losses can be reduced by: Installing summation meters for a group of customers to detect pilferage, fixing responsibility (on personnel) of the amount of power drawn and amount supplied by the agency personnel, installing accurate meters properly tested, resorting to regular testing/calibration of meters, conducting surprise raids/checks on consumers premises to detect theft or pilferage.

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Following are the commercial losses in Transmission Distribution systems: 1) Make unauthorized extension of loads. ( Direct Hooking) 2) Errors in meter reading & recording (faulty meter). 3) By passing the meter. ( unmetered supply & unmetered bills) 4) Improper testing & calibration of meters. 5) Stopping the meters by remote control. 6) Changing the sequence of thermal wiring. 7) Changing the C.T. ratio. 8) Intentional burning of meters. 


The methods of reducing commercial losses in distribution system:  These can be reduced by: Installing summation meters for a group of customers to detect pilferage, fixing responsibility (on personnel) of the amount power drawn and amount of supplied by the agency personnel, installing accurate meters properly tested, resorting to regular testing/calibration of meters, conducting surprise raids/checks on consumers premises to detect theft or pilferage. These remedies lead to proper evaluation of the energy produced, distributed and utilized. They will lead to avoidance of improper /unwarranted use of available energy which in turn reduces the energy requirements by some scale in turn leading to saving in energy sources.

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