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State the opportunities for energy conservation techniques in transformers.

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Opportunities for energy conservation techniques in transformers: Most of the energy loss that occurs in transformer is due to heat or vibration in the core that also reduces life of transformers. Regulatory Energy Commission (REC) has recommended that maximum efficiency of transformer must be maintained at 38% of loading condition of transformers. By using superior quality or improved grades of Cold Rolled Grain Oriented (CRGO) laminations, the no-load loss can be reduced to 32% than that specified by REC. In conventional transformer, windings are made of copper material. Load loss depends on size of conductor. To make transformer more efficient, thicker conductors are used so that load loss can be reduced.

Points to be covered: 1. Using energy efficient transformer. 2. Use amorphous core containing ferromagnetic elements like iron, cobalt alloy. This material has high resistivity than silicon steel. Due to this low core losses so less energy wasted. 3. Use encapsulated dry type transformer. 4. Use tapped transformer, usually auto wound leading to saving in copper. 5. Use thinner laminations of superior CRGO steel in transformer core to reduce iron losses. 6. Carry out periodic maintenance of transformer. 7. Use better quality low resistance copper conductors to reduce copper losses. 8. Maintain operating voltage and frequency at the rated values (power quality) so that losses are minimized. 9. Use better quality insulation materials to improve overload capacity and decrease dielectric leakages. 

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