Explain the following energy conservation techniques: (i) By reducing I2R losses in Trans. system (ii) By optimizing distribution voltage.
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i) By reducing I2R losses in Trans: 

1. Opting for low resistance All Aluminum Alloy conductors (AAAC) in place of conventional aluminum cored steel reinforced (ACSR) lines. 2. Increasing the system voltage leads to reduction in the line current transmitted that leads to lower I2R losses. 3. Using relevantly suitable means to reduce the line currents to lowest possible values by maintaining the power factor near unity ( reactive power control, power factor improvement) 4. Use of voltage controllers to maintain the voltage level at rated levels (not allowing the voltage to fall that leads to higher line currents) 5. Marinating proper distance (as low as economically possible) between consumer and distribution transformer.


(ii) By optimizing distribution voltage: 

Optimization of system voltage is maintaining the voltage of the system at the rated/specified level such that the related load requirements are most satisfactorily fulfilled and at the same time the losses/abnormal conditions related to over voltages/ under voltages are eliminated/reduced. There is fall in efficiency and quality of output with both these adverse/abnormal voltage conditions. For example; High voltages to resistance loads such as ovens etc. lead to excessive currents that create unnecessary heating leading to power losses in the supply lines and load. Also over voltages to motors leads to higher iron losses and higher torque that is not needed. Hence these are to be avoided. Under voltages to motors leads to excessive currents being drawn to take up the load resulting in higher supply line power losses. Thus maintaining the voltages at the specified levels leads to energy savings/conservation.

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