Describe the difference between direct and alternating current.
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Particulars
Direct Current
Alternating Current
1. Waveform
image
image
2. Definition
It is the current whose magnitude and direction do not change with respect to time. 
It is the current whose magnitude and direction continuously changes with respect to time.
3. Use of transformer
Not possible
Possible
4. Design of machines
Complicated
Simple
5. Frequency
Zero
It is 50 Hz or 60 Hz depending upon country.
6. Obtained from
Battery, Cell and DC Generator
Alternator
7. Passive parameters
Resistance only
Resistance, Inductance, Capacitance.
8. Applications
DC machines, HVDC system, electroplating, Battery charging, Traction.
AC machines, Domestic and industrial supply.
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Point
AC Supply
DC Supply
Amount of energy that can be carried 
Safe to transfer over longer city distances and can provide more power. 
Voltage of DC cannot travel very far until it begins to lose energy.
Cause of the direction of flow of electrons
Rotating magnet along the wire. 
Steady magnetism along the wire. 
Frequency
The frequency of alternating current is 50Hz or 60Hz depending upon the country.
The frequency of direct current is zero. 
Direction
It reverses its direction while flowing in a circuit.  
It flows in one direction in the circuit. 
Current
It is the current of magnitude varying with time  
It is the current of constant magnitude. 
Flow of Electrons
Electrons keep switching directions - forward and backward.
Electrons move steadily in one direction or 'forward'.  
Obtained from 
A.C Generator and mains. 
Cell or Battery. 
Passive Parameters 
Impedance. 
Resistance only
Types
Sinusoidal, Trapezoidal, Triangular, Square. 
Pure and pulsating. 


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DC vs AC

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