Construction of single phase transformer: Single-phase transformer essentially consists of following components:
i) Windings: Two windings generally of copper are placed round the core and are insulated from each other and also from the core.
ii) Core: Magnetic core is made up of thin silicon steel laminations which act as a magnetic circuit.
For big size transformers, tank is used to accommodate the core-winding assembly. In fact, the core-winding assembly is kept immersed in oil in the tank. The oil acts as a cooling medium and also the insulating medium. The terminals are taken out of the tank using bushings. The supply is connected to primary winding and load is connected to secondary winding.
Working of single phase transformer: Transformer works on the principle of Mutual electromagnetic induction. When AC voltage is applied to the primary winding, it produces alternating flux in the core. This flux links with the secondary winding and according to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, an emf is induced in the secondary winding and the current flows in the secondary circuit if load is connected.