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State any four materials used in fabrication of semiconductor device and describe its need.
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For fabrication of semiconductor devices like transistors diode, solar cell etc. we have to make use of following types of materials 


1. Substrate: o It is used for deposition of thin film layers, Substrate can be plastic, glass or ceramic. o Plastic substrate are used only for thin film solar cells, Glass or Ceramic are high temperature substrates. They are used for deposition of metals for resistors and capacitors.


2. Metals: o The fabrication of the passive part of integrated silicon and thin film circuits involves use of different metals. o The metals usually act as capacitor plate, as heat dissipater as a mechanical support. 


3. Capacitance Material: o They should have high dielectric constant, pin-hole free continuous layer, ability to withstand thermal stress, o Commonly used capacitance material are SiO, ZnS, SiO2. 


4. Junction coating: o The junction protected by using resins as coating material are called junction coating. o The material generally used are high purity silicon resin and silicon modified polyester resin, because of the satisfactory performance and long life. 


5. Device potting: o It is process of filling a complete electronic device with Gelatinous compound for resistance of shock and vibrations, exclusion of moisture and corrosive agents o Silicon fluids dielectric gels and flexible potting resins are some of the potting materials 


6. Packaging: o A suitable enclosure or packaging is needed for ensure safety of solid state devices. o Metal cans and sealed glass containers satisfy the extreme requirements of space and military users.

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