The key elements of Mechatronics systems can be classified under following categories:
Sensor and actuators
Actuators: Actuations is the result of direct physical action on process directly. In any physical process, there is motion or some sort of action. This motion or action can be applied to mechanical processes or structure through actuators. E.g. Stepper motor, Solenoids, DC motor, synchros etc.
Sensors: It accepts the physical quantities (process variables) from mechanical processes (dynamic system) and converts them into a signal that can be processed by the system.
Input signal conditioning and interfacing: The output of a transducer may be too small, too noisy, contain DC offset, not be compatible with next stages, and contain wrong information. Signal conditioning process if amplification using amplifier in which the signal magnitude is increased.
Digital control architectures: PLCs are industrial devices used for interfacing and controlling analog and digital devices. Microcontrollers are low cost, versatile, small size and easy programming device.
Graphical Displays: Various types of graphical displays are used for displaying measured variable, outputs, voltages etc. waveforms can be displayed for various analyses by CRT.
Controllers: It takes input from output signal conditioning and interface and it is not equal to the required set points then it is adjusted based on generated error and again signal is given to actuators and sensors.