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State the meaning of ferranti effect and proximity effect.  

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i) Ferranti effect : When long distance transmission is lightly loaded or there is no load condition than it is observe that receiving end voltage (VR) is found to be greater than sending end voltage (VS). This phenomenon is known as Ferranti effect.

ii) Proximity effect: 


Explanation: Let two alternating current carrying conductors placed near to each other as shown in figure. Due to electro-magnetic action, flux produced by each conductor links with each other. Due to this super –impose of magnetic field on conductor causes current in each conductor is re-distributed. This is known as proximity effect.

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