Electrolytic dissociation: - The process of splitting up of an electrovalent compound (Electrolyte) into its ions when dissolved in proper solvent like water is called as electrolytic dissociation.
Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation. 1) The molecules of an electrolyte when dissolved in water, split up into two kinds of charged particles, positively charged particle known as cation, negatively charged particle known as anion. 2) Cations are generally metallic radicals obtained by loss of electrons from metallic atoms, anions are generally non-metallic radicals obtained by gain of electrons from non-metallic atoms or groups of non-metals. 3) In solution, the total numbers of cations (positive charges) is equal to the total number of anions (negative charges) & hence the solution as a whole is electrically neutral. 4) The cations& anions present in the solution reunite together to form original electrovalent compound, hence it is reversible process.
5) The number of positve or negative charges that can be present on cation or anion depends upon valency of parent atom.