Explain parallel and wireless protocols.
asked Mar 26, 2018 in Embedded System Design by
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Parallel protocols:

PCI bus (Peripheral Components Interconnect):

  • PCI stands for Peripheral Components Interconnect.
  • PCI bus is used as a communication line to transmit signals and data from your computer system to peripheral devices attached to the computer system.
  • PCI bus is high-performance bus originated at Intel in the early 1990's.
  • Interconnects chips, expansion boards, processor memory subsystems.
  • Data transfer rate of 127.2 to 508.6 Mbits/s and 32 bit addressing later extended to 64 bit while maintaining compatibility with 32-bit schemes.
  • Synchronous bus architecture.
  • Multiplexed data/address lines.
  • A Peripheral Component Interconnect Bus connects the CPU and expansion boards such as modem cards, network cards, and sound cards.
  • The PCI bus is a parallel protocol.
  • PCI bus is designed to economically meet the I/O requirements of modern systems.
  • It has the ability to function with a 64-bit data bus.
  • PCI bus is designed to support the variety of microprocessor.
  • PCI bus makes use of synchronous timings and centralized arbitration scheme.

ARM bus:

  • ARM bus protocol is used internally by various IC design companies. 
  • ARM bus is designed to interface with ARM line of processors. 
  • ARM bus supports 32-bit data transfer and 32 bit addressing.

Wireless protocols:


  • IrDA is Infrared Data Association. Used in wireless IR communications systems worldwide.
  • IrDA is used in many electronics devices.
  • IrDA is simple and low cost.
  • IrDA is wireless protocol suite that supports short range point to point infrared data transmission.
  • Created and promoted by Infrared Data Association (IrDA).
  • Data transfer rate of 9.6 kbps and 4 Mbps.


  • Bluetooth is used for wireless connectivity. 
  • This is wireless protocol and based on a low-cost short-range radio link. 
  • Both devices need Bluetooth equipped and should be in the range of 10 meters for establishing a connection.
  • For Bluetooth, no line of sight is required.
  • Bluetooth is used for exchanging data over short distances.
  • Different versions of Bluetooth have different speeds.

IEEE 802.11:

  • IEEE 802.11 is an IEEE proposed standard for wireless local area network (LANs). 
  • IEEE 802.11 is a set of media access control and physical layer. 
  • They are most widely used wireless computer networking standards. 
  • They are created and maintain by IEEE.
  • The standard and amendments provide the basis for wireless network products using the Wi-Fi brand.

answered Mar 26, 2018 by