Engineering Q&A

Distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike - CC BY-SA.

in Lesson 2 Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power an Overview by

1 Answer

0 like 0 dislike

Some important components/equipments in substation 

As told earlier, the function of a substation is to receive power at some voltage through incoming lines and transmit it at some other voltage through outgoing lines. So the most important equipment in a substation is transformer(s). However, for flexibility of operation and protection transformer and lines additional equipments are necessary. 

Suppose the transformer goes out of order and maintenance work is to be carried out. Naturally the transformer must be isolated from the incoming as well as from the outgoing lines by using special type of heavy duty (high voltage, high current) switches called circuit breakers. Thus a circuit breaker may be closed or opened manually (functionally somewhat similar to switching on or off a fan or a light whenever desired with the help of a ordinary switch in your house) in substation whenever desired. However unlike a ordinary switch, a circuit breaker must also operate (i.e., become opened) automatically whenever a fault occurs or overloading takes place in a feeder or line. To achieve this, we must have a current sensing device called CT (current transformer) in each line. A CT simply steps down the large current to a proportional small secondary current. Primary of the CT is connected in series with the line. A 1000 A/5 A CT will step down the current by a factor of 200. So if primary current happens to be 800 A, secondary current of the CT will be 4 A. Suppose the rated current of the line is 1000 A, and due to any reason if current in the line exceeds this limit we want to operate the circuit breaker automatically for disconnection. In figure 2.7 the basic scheme is presented to achieve this. The secondary current of the CT is fed to the relay coil of an overcurrent relay. Here we are not going into constructional and operational details of a over current relay but try to tell how it functions. Depending upon the strength of the current in the coil, an ultimately an electromagnetic torque acts on an aluminum disc restrained by a spring. Spring tension is so adjusted that for normal current, the disc does not move. However, if current exceeds the normal value, torque produced will overcome the spring tension to rotate the disc about a vertical spindle to which a long arm is attached. To the arm a copper strip is attached as shown figure 2.8. Thus the arm too will move whenever the disk moves. 

image



The relay has a pair of normally opened (NO) contacts 1 & 2. Thus, there will exist open circuit between 1 & 2 with normal current in the power line. However, during fault condition in the line or overloading, the arm moves in the anticlockwise direction till it closes the terminals 1 & 2 with the help of the copper strip attached to the arm as explained pictorially in the figure 2.8. This short circuit between 1 & 2 completes a circuit comprising of a battery and the trip coil of the circuit breaker. The opening and closing of the main contacts of the circuit breaker depends on whether its trip coil is energized or not. It is interesting to note that trip circuit supply is to be made independent of the A.C supply derived from the power system we want to protect. For this reason, we expect batteries along with battery charger to be present in a substation. Apart from above there will be other types of protective relays and various meters indicating current, voltage, power etc. To measure and indicate the high voltage (say 6 kV) of the line, the voltage is stepped down to a safe value (say 110V) by transformer called potential transformer (PT). Across the secondary of the PT, MI type indicating voltmeter is connected. For example a voltage rating of a PT could be 6000 V/110 V. Similarly, Across the secondary we can connect a low range ammeter to indicate the line current.


Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 

by

Related questions

0 answers
asked Jul 23, 2019 in Electrical Engineering by anonymous | 40 views
1 answer
1 answer
0 answers
0 answers
1 answer
Welcome to electronics2electrical.com, where students and teachers can ask and answer any question. Get help and answers to any engineering problem including Electrical, electronics, mechanical, telecommunication, instrumentation, computer, mathematics, physics etc. Get answers to questions. Help is always 100% free!

Most popular tags

power motor dc circuit transformer voltage current system used phase resistance factor ac load synchronous induction energy electric generator electrical series frequency capacitor between plant line speed transmission use meter type advantages difference single mosfet control function instrument problem magnetic diode amplifier high bjt machine unit source motors and diagram winding shunt field parallel define electricity torque value maximum time relay types arduino supply digital armature applications thyristor working transformers wave on flow operation three coil material instruments state ratio signal emf effect formula efficiency theorem method disadvantages starting microprocessor network test operating direction controlled different logic transistor single-phase scr loss temperature connected rc law force inductance compare measure station wire low conductor principle wattmeter full characteristics measuring constant measurement breaker losses device converter bridge linear materials nuclear matrix flux drive resistivity of machines angle switch free rectifier protection core circuits battery solar gain thermal loop generators open negative analog number lines friction basic reactance short gate pole inverter the conservation diesel iron resistors capacitance engineering using direct main electronic electronics a steam induced relays hysteresis universal transducer computer feedback range distribution work secondary igbt algebra pmmc plants factors capacitors dielectric controller regulation systems design air fault components rotor cable starter oscillator eddy alternator application semiconductor ammeter rl average forces damping rlc connection zener electromagnetic biasing minimum insulation pressure balanced permanent moving errors running copper self analysis impedance stability quality start ideal curve over commutation is 3-phase arc permeability peak bias error fuzzy commutator conductors superposition density mechanical rotation construction measured electrons charge memory inductive two transfer explain fuse methods off back three-phase tariff locomotive installation welding heating rms surge rating generation potentiometer coupled shaded rate capacity storage adc excitation active pure resistor harmonics reluctance microcontroller voltmeter inductor internal 8085 cro reaction insulating overhead hydro resonance traction definition breakers earth

9,199 questions

7,946 answers

158 comments

3,292 users

9,199 questions
7,946 answers
158 comments
3,292 users