Substations are the places where the level of voltage undergoes change with the help of transformers. Apart from transformers a substation will house switches (called circuit breakers), meters, relays for protection and other control equipment. Broadly speaking, a big substation will receive power through incoming lines at some voltage (say 400 kV) changes level of voltage (say to 132 kV) using a transformer and then directs it out wards through outgoing lines. Pictorially such a typical power system is shown in figure 2.6 in a short of block diagram. At the lowest voltage level of 400 V, generally 3-phase, 4-wire system is adopted for domestic connections. The fourth wire is called the neutral wire (N) which is taken out from the common point of the star connected secondary of the 6 kV/400 V distribution transformer.
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur